Макаренко В.А. Tamilological Studies in Russia and in the Soviet Union
DR. V. A. MAKARENKO, is Senior Editor, Indian and Southeast Asian Section, State Publishing House of Foreign and National Dictionaries, Moscow.
The article* gives the basic facts of study and research concerning Dravidian languages in pre-revolutionary Russia and in the Soviet Union.
The Russian people had taken a great interest in India, her peoples and their different languages from the time of Afanasy Nikitin's Voyage Beyond the Three Seas (1466-1472) which marks the beginning of factual eye-witness account known of India.
It is remarkable that Afanasy Nikitin from the very outset of his voyage strove to reach South India with the aim to sell his horses there. In 1469 Nikitin went ashore at Chaul, sailing by Gujarat and port Kambay. During his 3-year stay in India, Nikitin visited Dabul, Junir, Golkonda and other places. He described the ports of Goa and Calicut (now Kolikode) in Vijayanagar on the Malabar coast, Ceylon, Chamba, Pegu in Burma.
In Nikitin's notes for the first time is encountered in Russian such a Tamil word as panam or fanam (ancient gold coin); here one can also see the word "sandal" which originates from sandanam, sandam or Sanskrit chandan. Besides, the following words such as Tamil kurundam, sumhada or sumbala, innchi, Malayalam achacha and achchhan can be found in his notes. It goes without saving that Nikitin's notes represent the earliest source of general data about Indian culture as a whole, of the customs and habits of her people, and the economic and political situation of the country covering the second half of XV century.
In Russia the beginning of the XVIII century marks the close study of Indian culture, her languages and literatures. The pioneer in studying Indian philology was ThZ. Bayer who learned the principles of Sanskrit from Bordon (apparently distorted as Padhan), one of the representatives of the Astrakhan Colony of Indian merchants. From Sanskrit Bayer proceeded to mastering Tamil which he then called "tamoul".
Bayer together with D. G. Messerschmidt studied also some of New Indian (Aryan) languages, Hindustani in the main. Messerschmidt collected specimens of writings in Devanagari, Tibetan, Tamil and Telugu, and specimens of modern New Indian languages (Urdu Marathi, and Gujarati).
He wrote his Elementae Litteraturae Brahmcmicae, Tangutanae Mungolicae (1728-1729) which was the first work containing specimens of the Sanskrit syllabary.
Another Russian Academician G.J. Kehr (1692-1740) elaborated a vast project known as "Establishment of the Oriental Academy in St. Petersburg" (1732). The same holds true for P. S. Pallas who published his famous Comparative Vocabularies of All Languages and Dialects (1787). Among more than 200 languages given in the work one can find materials in Sanskrit, Hindustani, Bengali, Singhalese, Gypsy speech and four basic Dravidian languages: Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu.
G. S. Lebedeff (1749-1817) is considered to be the founder of scientific indology in Russia. He was born in the family of a clergyman in Yaroslavl. Being a talented musician, linguist and ethnographer Lebedeff mastered German, French, Italian and English in a very short time. In the summer of 1785, from London he sailed to Madras on board the ship "Rodney" with the intention of getting to know India. On the invitation of the Mayor of Madras, Lebedeff settled in this town in August 1785**. He gave lessons in music, arranged public concerts, simultaneously collecting ethnographic materials. He began to study the Tamil language elaborating his own system of transcription of Tamil sounds; Russian print being used for this purpose. Lebedeff was the first Russian who studied Tamil in Tamilnad. In 1787 he left for Calcutta to study Sanskrit, Bengali and Hindustani languages. Lebedeff so perfectly mastered Bengali that in November 1795 he could stage M. Joddrell's drama "Disguise", having translated it from English into Bengali.
He carefully collected materials on Indian languages, discussing different questions with Sir W. Jones, the founder of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal (1784). In November 1897, G. S. Lebedeff arrived in London, where he published A Grammar of the Pure and Mixed East Indian Dialects (1801). His Grammar and Translation of the drama "The Disguise" (in Bengali "Kalpanik Sambadal") were published in Calcutta in 1963 under the guidance of Dr. Surniti Kumar Chatterji, Chairman W. Bengal Legislative Council.
On returning to Russia, Lebedeff opened in Petersburg the first printing-house in Europe with Bengali type; here he published Impartial Observations on the Brahmanic Systems in East India, the book being devoted to a detail description of Hindoo customs and ceremonies.
Great contribution in research of the Sanskrit language was also made by F. P. Adelung. R. H. Lenz, B. Dorn and especially by L.P. Petrov. The latter published in 1855 in Moscow "Materials for the History of Oriental, Greek and Slavic Writings," where in comparison with Devanagari were given "All Hindoo Writings" including Gurmukhi.,Bengali, Tibetian, Javan, Singhalese.,Telugu, Old Tamil (Grantha), Modern Tamil, Pali, Siam (Thai), Macassar, that is most writings originating from Brahmi.
Dravidian languages, in particular the Tamil language, were undoubtedly studied after G. S. Lebedeff. In 1853 in Petersburg were published two anonymous articles: one "K. Graul and the Tamoul Language" — in "Russkiy Invalid", the other "K. Graul's Studies of Tamoul in India" — in "Vestnic Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obschestva"', both articles were devoted to the analysis of works of a well-known German dravidologist, Karl Graul.
Thorough investigation of Tamil and other Dravidian language is connected with the name of a prominent Russian linguist, Professor of the Moscow University, S. K. Bulich (1859-1921). Bulich published a two-volume Account of the History of Linguistics in Russia, gathered a big collection of works on Dravidian linguistic and wrote several articles on Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam languages. The most interesting is the article The Tamil Language where Bulich paid much attention to colloquial Tamil (koduntamil). Unlike many European dravidologists and tamilologists of that time S. K. Bulich did not consider the Tamil colloquial language "vulgar' or "distorted"; moreover he thought it deserved separate investigation. Besides, Bulich considered the artificial character of a refined poetic language (sentamil), as connected with the intention to resist Sanskrit's influence. Besides the above sanskritologists it is necesary to mention the name of Ac. F. Graefe, K. A. Kossovich who compiled the first in Russia "Sanskrit-Russian Dictionary' (1854); then V. Miller, V. Shertsl, the author of a well-known "Sanskrit Grammar" (1873) and "Syntax of the Ancient Indian Language" (1883) and finally mention should be made of F. Knauer, P. Ritter, D. Kudriavsky and others.
As far back as 1839-40 Ac. O. Bothlingk published his first work dedicated to the Panini Grammar; his name is known to all sanskritologists due to the famous 7-volume Sanskrit Dictionary (1855-75 and its abbreviated variant. Since the seventies began the many sided activity of I. Minaev (1840-1890), philologist, great authority in Sanskritology and Pali studies, author of brilliant descriptions of India, who wrote Account of Phonetics and Morphology of Pali (1872); latter having been translated into several European languages. Such famous Russian linguists as A. Vostokov, D. Ovsianikov-Kulikovsky, F. Korsh, I.Boduen-de-Kourtenet, F. Fortunatov, V Porjezinsky and others knew perfectly Sanskrit, very often they used many facts of this language in their comparative historical investigations. All this provided a solid base for further development of Russian indology, and exploration of Modern Indian language both New Indian and Dravidian.
Pre-revolutionary indology was available to a certain extent only for a narrow circle of specialists, many of whom were real enthusiasts in investigating Indian languages. After the Great October socialist Revolution in 1917 and during the hard times of the Civil War and post-war economic dislocation of the country, the investigation of Indian culture and languages received a powerful backing From the Soviet State. Already in 1920 was founded the Petrograd Oriental Institute, reorganised in 1927 as the Leningrad Oriental Institute. The greater part of the students studied Modern Indian languages—Hindi, Bengali, Marathi and Tamil under the guidance of such lecturers as A. Barannikov, M. Tubiansky, A. Mervart. In Moscow since 1815 there existed the Lazarev Institute of Oriental languages, which in 1919 was reorganised as the Armenian Institute in Moscow and in 1921—as the Moscow Institute of Orientalistics.
Alexander Mervart, young ethnographer and linguist, is considered to be the founder of Soviet dravidology. In 1914-18, together with his wife, L. A. Mervart, who was also ethnographer, visited South India and Ceylon with the aim of studying in-situ the mode of life, customs, national peculiarities, languages and literatures of the Dravidian people. This expedition gave them a happy opportunity for a deep investigation of Tamil and some other Dravidian languages of India. On returning home they published a "Report on the Ethno-graphical Expedition to India in 1914-18". At the same time A. Mervart wrote a number of articles, in particular "Achievements and Problems of Indian Ethnography", "A Short Account of Indian Culture" and some other articles about the role of museums in Indian culture.
Historian of culture, museologist and ethnographer, A. M. Mervart was also keen on investigating the classical and popular drama of India, the Dravidian theatre. In 1928 there appeared another interesting article "Elements of People's Art in a Classical Drama of Ancient India"; then followed "The Plot of Sakuntala in Malabar Popular Drama". Later A. Mervart became interested in synthetical problems of the Indian theatre, especially in Dravidian dramatic composition. In the book "Oriental Theatre" (1928) much place is taken by his article "The Indian Popular Theatre", the article being devoted to the characteristic features of Dravidian drama. Mervart's article "The History of Intervocalic Stops in the Dravidian Languages" ranks high among works on dravidology. Hi studied different problems of the grammar and the vocabulary of Dravidian languages, mainly of Tamil, applying in his studies in formation received through his personal contact with Dravidians Here lies the reason why his works are notable for the novelty o material and the courageous formulation of different questions. The best example of such works is A Grammar of the Tamil Colloquial Language, 1929. the first book in Russia dealing with Dravidian languages.
A real flowering of Soviet dravidology occurs in the fifties. In post-war period a gifted Soviet indologist V. S. Vorobyev-Desiatovsky (1927-1956) began investigating the Tamil language. Brilliant expert of Sanskrit, Prakrit, Tibetan and some New Indian (Aryan) languages, he was interested in how the Dravidian substratum in fluenced the development of Indo-Aryan languages. In 1956 Vorobyev-Desiatovsky wrote a special article dealing with this problem.
Another Soviet dravidologist and tamilologist M. S. Andronov since 1952 has been investigating Tamil and some other Dravidian languages; his works are well-known not only in the Soviet Union but also in India and among dravidologists of other countries. Or finishing the post-graduate course of Institute of the Peoples of Asia (IPA) USSR Academy of Sciences he left for Madras and for a year he improved his knowledge in the Tamil language and Dravidian linguistics at the post-graduate course of Madras University under the guidance of Prof. M. Varadarajan, the late Prof. Dr. R. P. Sethi, Pillai, B. C. Lingam, and some other Tamils. On returning from this scientific mission, M. Andronov in 1960 defended his Doctorate thesis, separate parts of which large work were published in the Soviet Union (5 articles) and in the Madras magazine "Tamil Culture" (3 articles), the articles being dedicated to colloquial and finite forms of the Tamil verb and participal nouns. Among Andronov's subsequent works published at different time the most valuable is his work “Colloquial Tamil and its Dialects”. Here the author distinguishes modern colloquial language from archaic written language, and at the same time he singles out the following territorial dialects: northern (Madras, Chengalpat, N. and S. Arcot); South (Madurai, Tirunelveli, Ramanatapuram), East (Tanjore, Tiruchi), West (Nilgiri, Koimbatur, Salem) and Ceylon dialect. Here are given also the social dialects of Tamilnad. The work is supplied with colloquial vocabulary, containing words encountered in modern Tamil fiction; none of the existing dictionaries, including "Tamil Lexicon" (1929-1939) contain the above material.
In 1965 "Soviet Encyclopaedia Publishing House" issued "A Russian-Tamil Dictionary" (23,000 words approx.) compiled by M. S. Andronov and his pupils A. Ibragimov and N. Yuganova. During the sojourn in Tamilnad of two representatives of the Publishing House, V. I. Alexeev and V. A. Makarenko in September 1963, the manuscript of the dictionary was partly looked over by Prof. Varadarajan, Dr. A. Chidambaranathan, Prof. Minakshisundaram Pillai, Dr. P. C. Ganeshsundaran and some other specialists. The dictionary is supplied with "A Grammar of the Russian Language" in Tamil, which enables Tamils to use it when studying Russian. In 1966 M. Andronov finished "A Grammar of the Tamil Language"; the book represents a normative descriptive grammar, where in detail are given some facts of modern literary language (in India), classical Tamil (sentamil), modern colloquial Tamil (koduntamil) and its five territorial and main social dialects.
In 1961-64 M. S. Andronov and V. A. Makarenko compiled "Malayalam-Russian Dictionary" (38,000 words approx.) which will be published in 1967. M. Andronov, M. Dashko and V. Makarenko intend also to compile a similar "Kannada-Russian Dictionary".
S. G. Rudin, lecturer of Hindi and Tamil at the Oriental Faculty of Leningrad University, like M. Andronov began studying Tamil independently; then with the help of late Prof. Adilakshmi, who taught Tamil and Telugu at the University. In 1960 together with A. Piatigorsky, Rudin compiled the "Tamil-Russian Dictionary" (38,000 words approx.). In 1964 Rudin published a very interesting particle dealing with Tamil word stress. In the same year, the Conference of Tamil writer's Association awarded him a medal for his work in the Tamil language and literature. In 1965-66 Rudin was on a scientific mission to Tamilnad, for the purpose of furthering his knowledge of Tamil.
In 1962 Y. Y. Glazov defended his Doctorate thesis dedicated to the world-known "Thirukkural" by Tiru Valluvar—"Morphological Analysis of Classical Tamil" and wrote article on "Morphemes of Aorist in Ancient Tamil". In 1965 there appeared another of Glazov's works, "On the Problem of Typological Affinity between Dravidian and Turkish Languages", G. Greenberg's quantitive method for typological comparison of languages being used here. In 1961 together with Chandra Sekhar he wrote "The Malayalam Language" and in 1965 in close collaboration with A. Krishnamurti he published “Kural” for the first time in Russian.
It is particulary necessary to point out the close collaboration of Soviet and Czechoslovakian scholars such as M. Andronov, S. Rudin, Y. Glazov and the Czechoslovakian dravidologist Dr. Kamil Zvelebil. Their joint work is directed to preparing a scientific-historical grammar of the Tamil language.
In the matter of studies in Moscow concerning the Tamil language much help was given by Tamil translators Shri G. Subramanian, N. Chokkalingam, A. Krishnamurthi, P. Somasundaran, M. Pillai and C. G. S. Manivarman. We are especially grateful to Mr. Purnam Somasundaram, who not only taught all Moscow tamilists, without exception, Tamil language, but was the editor of two Tamil dictionaries published in Moscow, and at the same time being a brilliant translator of works of literature from Tamil into Russian and vice versa.
Among Soviet scientists explorating Kannada we should mark Dr. M. A. Dashko who wrote several works dealing with a verb in modern Kannada.
About 15 years Dr.Z. N. Petrunicheva has been investigating the language and literature of the Andhra people. In 1965 she and K. S. Ramaya translated jointly from Telugu "The History of the Andhra People" by Yetukuri Balaramamurti. Dr. Petrunicheva wrote also several articles and made a number of translations of works by Sri Sri and Gurazada Apparao.
S. Y. Dzenit and N. V. Gurov give much time and attention to the elaboration of Telugu; they wrote many articles and made several translations and in 1960-65 together with Petrunicheva they compiled the "Telugu-Russian Dictionary" (36,000 words approx.).
Dr. G. A. Zograf, Leningrad indologist and an expert in Indo- Aryan linguistics, in his work The Languages of India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Nepal has described and classified the main languages of India, including Dravidian: Tamil Malayalam Kannada, Kodagu, Tulu, Toda, Kota (Dravid group); Telugu (Andhra group); Ollari, Parji, Kolami, Naiki, Gondi, Kui (Khandi or Khond),Kuroh or Oraon, Malto (Central Indian group); and Brakhui (North-west group).
In 1961 Dr. M. S. Andronov wrote an article "New Evidence of Possible Linguistic Ties between the Deccan and the Urals" which was then published in Madras in English; two years later he wrote another article "Dravidian Languages" published in the magazine "Archiv Orientalni" (Praha). In 1964 in Moscow in Russian and in the Hague in English there appeared Andronov's article "Lexicostatic Analysis of the Chronology of Disintegration of Proto-Dravidian"; here the author uses M. Svadesh's theory and method of lexicostatistics. Many other of Andronov's works are of great value and interest to dravidologists; especially does this hold true for his latest work "Dravidian Languages" (1965). Unlike analogous comparative grammars by JC. Caldwell and Block Andronov's work gives the material on more than 20 Dravidian languages among which the main ones are Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, Gondi, Bhili, Tulu, Kurukh, Brahui, Kui (Khond), Kodagu, Badaga, Kolami, Parji, Kota, Toda, Malto, Ollari, Kuvi, Naiki, Poia.
If the first acquaintance with Tamil and other Dravidian languages in Russia refers to the first quarter of XVIII c, first translations and literary explorations of Dravidian literatures have already appeared in the years of Soviet power.
In the Soviet Union the pioneer in investigating Tamil literature (as well as Dravidian languages) was A. M. Mervart, ethnographer, specialist in literature and linguist, who visited South India and Ceylon in 1914-18. He is the author of "A Short Account of the Indian Culture" (1927), to say nothing of several articles about the role of museums in Indian culture and explorations of classical and popular drama, especially in South India. Such are "Elements of People's Art in a Classical Drama of Ancient India" (1928) and "The Sakuntala plot in Malabar Popular Drama" (1927). Mervart's passion for synthetical and comparative problems of the Indian theatre, especially Dravidian dramatic composition, found its full expression in his large article "The Indian People Theatre", the article was included later in the work "Oriental Theatre" (1929).
Being the author of "A Grammar of Tamil Colloquial Language" (1929), A. M. Mervart was interested first and foremost in Tamil literature. He made several translations from Tamil into Russian. In 1928 in "The Foreign Literature Herald" (No. 12, p.45-46) was published a legend about "Misadventures of a saintly Poor Creature and his Five Pupils". Most Mervart's translations of Tamil legends, tales, proverbs and sayings were published after his death, namely in 1961, 1963, 1964. Mervart's creative work marks the beginning of Soviet dravidology and work on translations from Tamil and other Dravidian languages.
It goes without saying that literary work and work on translations depend on the degree of the study and research of a given language That is why the flowering in the exploration of Tamil and other Dravidian languages in the fifties entailed the flowering in the study of Dravidian literatures in the sixties. Since August 1947 Soviet-Indian cultural and scientific contacts have been considerably strengthened; this fact has favoured the further stocking of libraries with Indian materials; especially it holds true for the Union Foreign Literature Library, where works of fiction in the main Dravidian languages, especially in Tamil and Malayalam are available.
In 1959 in the second volume of the collection "Stories by Indian Writers" were published several translations, including "Light Has Died Away" by K. V. Jaganadan, "A Lame Bird" by T. JaRa, "Rajah Has Arrived!" by Alagiriswami (tr. by Dr. Glazov), then followed "Flower of Shambak" by T. Janakiraman (tr. by P. Somasundaram and Dr. A. Piyatigorsky), "Cock of Shambak" by Puthumai Pitthan (tr. by Dr. A. Piyatigorsky), and another of his stories "Well of Misfortunes" (tr. by Mr. R. Ivanov). Simultaneously appeared the first translations made by Mr. A. Ibragimov. In 1960 in the collection "Young Poets of India" were published poems by Tamil poets, namely Arasan, Vanidasan, Venkatapati, Duraiswami, Kachaivan, Thuraivan, and young Kerala poets—Bhaskaran, Vayalara, Rama Varma, Kurup (linear translations by Dr. Y. Glazov, Mrs. I. Smirnova and A. Krishnamurthi and Chandra Sekhar).
Soviet tamilologists pay much attention in their work to the creative work of the famous Tamil poet Subrahmanya Bharati. As long ago, as 1958 in the collection "Indian Poets" was published his poem "New Russia" (tr. by G. Kots, interlinear translation by Mrs. I. Smirnova); the poem is devoted to the events of the October Revolution in 1917, in Russia. In 1960 there appeared such poems as "Glorify Motherland" and "A Song for the Daughter". And at last in 1963 was published a collection of 40 best poems by Bharati, including extracts from the poems Sakti, Wind and Song of Cuckoo; the translations having been made by a group of Leningrad translators according to the linear translation by Mrs. I. Smirnova. I. N. Smirnova is the author of the work A Short Account of Development of Tamil Literature (including the end of XIX c.). The work was published in the collection "Indian Literatures" (1958); the materials from the book "Tamil aur uska Sahitya" by P. Somasundaram and the works of S. Vayapun Pillai were source material for this study.
In 1961 Mr. A. Ibragimov translated stories by some Ceylon Tamils, namely K. Daniels' story "About Those whose Rice you Ate", and V. A. Irajarattinam's story "A Boat", both of stories were published in the 4th number of the Oriental Anthology. Besides the above stories Mr. Ibragimov translated some other stories, which were published in the previous anthology; those stories are: "Lotus which has Flowered in Mud", "Nanamani Publishing House", "Story about Love" by Chidambara Raghunadan. In 1961 then appeared a collection of stories "Light of Love" by Pudumeipittar; and then in the magazine "Krestjanka" were published translations of two of Alagirisami's stories "Topaz Ear-Rings" and "Simply a Dog". In 1964 Mr. A. Ibragimov translated Kalki's novel "Noise of Waves" (Alai Osai); now ne is working at a translation of D Jaya Kanthan's story "Life Calls".
Dr. Y. Glazov in collaboration with A. Krishnamurti translated into Russian the world-wide "Thirukkural" by Thiru Valluvar which was published in 1963. In 1965 Dr. Y. Glazov translated the famous Tamil literary monument "Silappatikaram" ("Epic of the Anklet").
In 1961 was published a collection "Proverbs and Sayings of Oriental Peoples" containing 196 selected Tamil proverbs and sayings, which were translated by Dr. A. M. Piyatigorsky, Shri Purnan Somasundaran and Dr. A. M. Mervart.
Dr. A. M. Piyatigorsky, Moscow philosopher, specializing in Tamil Saiva Siddhanta at the end of 1962 published his book Materials on the History of Indian Philosophy; the book being devoted the specimens of mediaeval philosophic and religious literature, based on "Siva-Nyana-Siddhiyar" and the treatise "Naladiyar". In 1961 appeared Piyatigorsky's translation of the collection of old Tamil legends Tale on Bewitched Jackals, where are given extracts from Thiruvilayadal-Puranam, Vadavurar-Puranam, Periya-Puranam and the poems "Silappadikaram" and "Manimekalai". In 1966 was published "Tamil Literature" dealing with the history of ancient mediaeval and modern Tamil literature. Dr. A. Piyatigorsky is the author of the article "The History of Siva-Ganga"; besides, he has reviewed Sadashiva Pandarattar's book The History of Tamil Literature (1955).
In the Soviet Union, amongst Tamilians writing in English, most popular is R. K. Narayan, whose novel The Guide was published in Russian in 1961; another of his stories The Day of an Astrologer was also translated into Russian in 1965. The same holds true for S.S. Raja, whose article Tamil Popular Tales Written by an Italian was also translated into Russian.
First translations of poems by Vallathol Narayan Menon, as they call him in India "Tagore of the South", appeared in 1952, then in 1955 and 1958.
In 1959 Dr. Glazov translated from Malayalam, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai's story Soldier. In 1961 were published two novels by T. S. Pillai—Shrimps and "Two Ser of Rice"; both novels having been translated by Ch. Sekhar and M. Salganik.
In 1956 Dr. Z. N. Petrunicheva in collaboration with Dr. K. S. Ramaya translated from Telugu the work by Yetukuri Balaramamurthi The Short History of the Andhra People. Then in the collection Indian Poets were published extracts from the poem "Song about Children" and "An Old Beggar" by Sri Sri; the translation was made by A. Golemba and K. Ramaya (1958); Dr. Petrunicheva wrote a special article in "Asia and Africa Today", devoted to this remarkable Telugu poet. Poetry of such young poets as Visalakshi, Kandurti, Nayani Krishnakumari, Prayoga Kodandaramashastri, Padamasu Bellamkonda, R. Reddi, Sishtla, Sunkara, Thilak, Tummal, U. Kondaya and Chiranji is presented in the collection "Young Poets of India" (1960).
As far back as 1958 in the "Oriental Anthology" (No. 2) for the first time in Russian was published the poem "Purnama" written by Gurazada Apparao, classic of Telugu poetry and prose; the poem was translated from English by A. Gorbovsky. In the 5th number of the Anthology were published four best poems by Apparao (in translation from Telugu by Mr. A. Ibragimov) and translation of Lakshmana Rao's article devoted to the literary work of the poet.
And at last in 1961 there appeared the collection "Selected Works by Gurazada Apparao" in the translation of Dr. Z. N. Petrnicheva.
373 proverbs and sayings translated into Russian by Dr. Z. N. Petrunicheva were included in the collection "Proverbs and Sayings of the Oriental Peoples" (1961); 5 selected tales by Andhras in translation of N. Gurov entered the collection "Tales of Peoples of India".
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* This paper was written at the end of 1965. The titles of books and articles have been translated into English. — Ed.
** FABRICIUS and BREITHAUPT published their English-Tamil Dictionary in Madras in 1786. — Editor.