В Варшавском университете состоялась защита диссертации о тамильских песнях богине Мариямман

20.09.17 на восточном факультете Варшавского университета состоялась защита диссертации (Ph.D.):
Karolina Łaszewska
Tamilskie pieśni ku czci bogini Marijamman: przeobrażenia w sferze wierzeń i rytuału

(praca doktorska w zakresie literaturoznawstwa na kierunku indologia)

Promotor: Promotor: prof. dr hab. Danuta Stasik
Promotor pomocniczy: dr Jacek Woźniak

Каролина Лашевска.
Тамильские песни богине Мариямман: поэзия и ритуал.
Научный руководитель проф. Данута Стасик. Консультант др. Яцек Вожняк.
Оппоненты: Маржена Черняк


The primary goal of the submitted dissertation is to investigate the modern transformations of the cult of the goddess Mariamman (Māriyammaṉ) determined by the socio-cultural changes, most of all the rural to urban migration in search of better employment of the followers of the goddess while changing their way of living (including the faith system). The main aim of the dissertation is to show the symbolic way that Mariamman has passed through to become a deity who aspires to be worshipped as a pan-Indian goddess. This study also illustrates how she has become a widely known goddess not only in South India but also in Malaysia, Singapore and the South Africa and a goddess whose temples visit thousands of devotees daily. Moreover, the study depicts how Mariamman has turned into the goddess whose followers represent all of the strata of Indian society including Brahmins (members of this community serves as priests in temples of the goddess most frequently) and a goddess who, for this reason, has changed her dietary habits – she no longer accepts blood sacrifices but she approves only vegetarian offerings (flowers, diary products and fruit) like most of pan-Indian goddesses do. As source materials used in this dissertation served devotional songs (paktippāṭalkaḷ) sung in honor of Mariamman representing the tradition of bhakti involving total devotion to God and establishing a close relation to Him. The anthologies of poems are published by temple authorities and can be collected in small devotional shops but nowadays it is easier to find them in regular book shops. Poems analyzed in this dissertation have been collected from the four of the most popular temples of the goddess – Samayapuram (Camayapuram), Tiruverkatu (Tiruvēṟkāṭu), Kannapuram (Kaṇṇapuram) and Punnaynallur (Puṉṉainallūr). To illustrate the process of changes in Mariamman’s cult optimally the thesis contains five chapters. First chapter introduces the character of Mariamman and shows the context in which she lives. It also presents main places of her worship as well as the mythology of the goddess. Furthermore it introduces the conception of sacred power of women – pan-Indian shakti (cakti) and Tamil ananku (aṇaṅku). The second chapter examines the Mariamman’s role of the village goddess – provides the list of her names and typical occupations. In turn, the third chapter shows Mariamman as one of the goddesses of The Great Tradition of Hinduism and enlists her most popular images. The fourth chapter provides the different images of the goddess conditioned by the Tamil socio-ritual space organization scheme. Finally, the fifth chapter not only describes the festivals in Mariamman’s honor but also presents the crucial days dedicated to the goddess and enlists the rituals characteristic to The Great and The Small Tradition of Hinduism.

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